Posted 30 November 2016 - 03:02 AM
In answer to your first question I would find my closest fly shop and buy a Thompson vise, a decent bobbin, a spool of black 8/0 Veevus thread, a spool of small gold wire, a decent pair of fine-tipped scissors, a whip-finisher and a bodkin. The fine-tipped scissors are for thread and soft materials ONLY! Go to a fabric store and buy a cheap pair of embroidery scissors. The crappy scissors are for wire, metal tinsels, hides, dirty deer hair, and the like.
Go to a department store and buy a bottle of clear Sally Hansen's Hard As Nails nail polish. It's cheaper than head cement and as good or better.
I would not buy a flared-tip bobbin, but that's just personal preference. I find them hard to work with sometimes. You can get by without a bobbin threader. Just introduce the thread into the bottom of the bobbin tube and then suck hard on the other end. (I've been tying since the latter 60's and have used my threader maybe 4 times.) I wouldn't buy Ultra Thread, though it seems to be all the rage right now. I find it nasty stuff to work with as it shreds with a dirty look or a rough finger tip, and you will have random fibers spiraling off of your fly.
Starter materials like hooks, feathers, fur, hair, dubbings, beads, etc. sort of depend on how and where you expect to fish and for what. Dry or wet? Stream or stillwater? Trout? Bass? Kokanee? Bluegills? Inconnu? Swordfish? Pick a style of fishing, pick a fish, and tell your vendor you need materials to tie one simple fly for starters. For wet trout, maybe a gold-ribbed pheasant tail (PT) nymph. When you get that down, up your game and try a flashback gold-ribbed pheasant tail nymph, adding one more material to your pattern. Then maybe a beadhead gold-ribbed flashback PT nymph. Then maybe a beadhead soft hackle gold-ribbed flashback PT nymph..... You might get sick of PT nymphs, but by this point you have learned to fasten a bead, thread, tail barbules, gold wire, flashabou, thorax material of choice, and a feather all on one little hook.
Anyway, those are some of my thoughts. Good luck and good times to you.