I've never fished for any saltwater species, the only bony mouthed species I've fished for would be pike, and you'd think with bony mouthed fish in particular, it would be beneficial to have a barb on the hook
We're goin' in circles here. I just explained why barbless hooks would be easier to penetrate a bony mouth (less pressure needed, cleaner bite into the mouth).
As for whether there is a difference of barbed vs. barbless when using a nine foot long rod, yes there is a difference. It might not be huge, but basic physics makes it easier for the barbless hook to penetrate the mouth of a fish, bony or not. You're talking about how quick the hook set is (which would probably be identical for both hook types), but I'm talking about how sure and deep the hook set is. In that case, the barbless hook wins every time.
As I stated earlier, a barbless hook forces the angler to keep more tension on the line so that the hook isn't thrown. And so what if the fish throws the hook because you messed up during the fight? Learn from it and get better.